A cure for glaucoma Ageing is a degenerative process that can lead to tissue and organ dysfunction. One possible cause of ageing is the accumulation of epigenetic noise, such as DNA methylation changes, that disrupts gene expression patterns and over time decreases tissue function and regenerative capacity. The central nervous system (CNS) is one such system that loses function and the ability to regenerate. Now, scientists have shown that gene therapy can reprogramme retina cells, restoring youthful DNA methylation patterns and transcriptomes, promoting axon regeneration after injury, and reversing vision loss in a mouse model of glaucoma and in aged mice. By adding just four genes into adult skin cells in mice, this induces the cells to become like embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. The now famous transcription factors, the iPS cells, can also cause unintended effects, which can lead to cells becoming cancerous. The reprogramming by OSKM involves processes that erases cellular identity and resets DNA methylation age and previous work has suggested that OSKM may counteract normal ageing however, how to circumvent the cancerous side effects will be a crucial discovery for this research to translate. Now scientists, from Harvard Medical School, US, led by David Sinclair have used the eye as a model CNS tissue, and have shown that ectopic expression of 3 of the Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 can restore vision in mice by turning back the clock on aged eye cells in the retina to recapture youthful gene function, without the induction of tumours. The researchers are now trying to confirm their findings in further animal work, and hope to initiate clinical trials within two years to test the efficacy of the approach in people with glaucoma.
5G is another link in the chain of progress which eventually will lead to super-fast phones, self-driving cars, smarter homes, streaming movies, music, and games with zero lag.
Technology will always keep advancing like a huge wave that cannot be held back. These are just some of the technologies we can expect to see in our lives, 5G will allow our devices and services; The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction, to interconnect seamlessly. Things that seem complex to operate, like autonomous cars or drones, will become achievable.
To achieve this will mean harnessing millimetre wave (mmWave) spectrum for faster data speeds is one of the biggest breakthroughs of 5G, the next generation cellular networking technology following 4G LTE. But there are concerns this very high-frequency spectrum could pose adverse health effects for the public.
Radio-frequency (RF) radiation. At a basic level, radiation isn’t as intimidating a term as it might sound. Radiation is the emission of energy from any source, which means even the heat that comes off our bodies counts as radiation.
RF radiation is just another name for radio waves. As the FDA puts it, RF radiation is one form of electromagnetic energy which consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together (radiating) through space.
The radiation that cellphones give off is at the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, making them much safer than high-energy radiation like x-rays and gamma rays. While the latter give off ionising radiation, meaning they have enough energy to ionise an atom or molecule and thus damage cell DNA resulting in cancer, RF radiation does not. RF radiation only has enough energy to move or vibrate atoms in a molecule, not enough to ionise it. While that means RF radiation does not cause cancer by damaging DNA cells, there still are ongoing studies regarding the effects of non-ionising radiation. Don't worry about 6G, this wont be launched until 2035.
Is it now safe to fly?
There is still a good degree of caution when it comes to leaving the security of our homes now lockdown has been relaxed, and people are now vaccinated.
Most airlines will take measures to increase the health and safety of passengers, reducing the overall number of passengers allowed, boarding people 10 at a time and using electrostatic spraying, or ‘fogging’ to kill all germs and viruses in the aircraft at the end of the day.
British Airways say face masks will still be compulsory for passengers, while hand-sanitising stations will also be present in public spaces.
Before entering the building, passengers will have their temperatures taken by a thermal scanner, there may also be obligatory on-the-spot blood tests to check for infection, also ‘immunity passports’ such as the NHS bar-code track and trace system will remain in place.
The lack of human activity during lock-down caused human-linked vibrations in the Earth to drop by an average of 50 percent between March and May 2020.
This quiet period of social distancing, closure of services and industry, and drops in tourism and travel, is the longest and most pronounced quiet period of seismic noise in recorded history.
The new research, led by the Royal Observatory of Belgium and five other institutions around the world including Imperial College London, showed that the dampening of 'seismic noise' caused by humans was more pronounced in more densely populated areas.
The relative quietness allowed researchers to listen in to previously concealed earthquake signals, and could help us differentiate between human and natural seismic noise more clearly than ever before.
The Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force is a program within the United States Office of Naval Intelligence used to "standardise collection and reporting" on sightings of unexplained aerial vehicles, sometimes termed UFOs. The picture below shows a secret corridor hidden 25 miles underground, leading to a gateway structure, believed to be a remnant of extraterrestrial activity, a secret area where scientists are now trying to understand the science behind the modified space/time link.
The Gateway could be a link into a future world, the horizon provides a barrier between two regions of flat space-time where the gap can be bridged.
Quantum theory allows particles, such as an electrons, to tunnel through these energy barriers. On one side of the barrier, we have an ordinary electron, more or less describable in terms of classical physics. On the other side of the barrier we also have a ‘classical’ electron; but the electron tunnels through the barrier by behaving as a quantum wave function. This is the process that explains, for example, how alpha particles escape from atomic nuclei; aerial phenomena objects penetrate the barrier in similar fashion, entering into the other region of space-time beyond, ‘the tunnel to a future space time state'.
SpaceX now has permission from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission to loft about 12,000 Starlink craft, and the company has applied to an international radio-frequency regulator for approval of up to 30,000 additional satellites. (For perspective: There are only about 2,000 operational satellites in orbit today, and humanity has launched only around 9,000 craft into space in all of history, according to the United Nations' Office of Outer Space Affairs.)
Could there be problems in the future with even more space junk? SpaceX satellites are low altitude and have a five year orbit. The constellation will consist of thousands of mass-produced small satellites, working in combination with ground transceivers.
In the event, the first large deployment of 60 satellites in May 2019 were 227 kilograms (500 lb) and SpaceX decided to place the satellites at a relatively low altitude 550 kilometres (340 miles), due to concerns about the space environment.
Current space junk large enough to be tracked.
As of January 2019, more than 128 million bits of debris smaller than 1 cm (0.4 in), about 900,000 pieces of debris 1 to 10 cm, and around 34,000 pieces larger than 10 cm were estimated to be in orbit around the Earth. The higher the altitude, the longer the orbital debris will typically remain in Earth orbit. Debris left in orbits below 370 miles (600 km) normally fall back to Earth within several years. At altitudes of 500 miles (800 km), the time for orbital decay is often measured in decades.
We are all seeing rather less of the Sun. Scientists looking at five decades of sunlight measurements have reached the disturbing conclusion that the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth's surface has been gradually falling. Paradoxically, the decline in sunlight may mean that global warming is a far greater threat to society than previously thought.
Dimming appears to be caused by air pollution. Burning coal, oil and wood, whether in cars, power stations or cooking fires, produces not only invisible carbon dioxide (the principal greenhouse gas responsible for global warming) but also tiny airborne particles of soot, ash, sulphur compounds and other pollutants.
This visible air pollution reflects sunlight back into space, preventing it reaching the surface. But the pollution also changes the optical properties of clouds. Because the particles seed the formation of water droplets, polluted clouds contain a larger number of droplets than unpolluted clouds. Recent research shows that this makes them more reflective than they would otherwise be, again reflecting the Sun's rays back into space.
Scientists are now worried that dimming, by shielding the oceans from the full power of the Sun, may be disrupting the pattern of the world's rainfall. There are suggestions that dimming was behind the droughts in sub-Saharan Africa which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives in the 1970s and 1980s. There are disturbing hints the same thing may be happening today in Asia, home to half the world's population. "My main concern is global dimming is also having a detrimental impact on the Asian monsoon," says Prof Veerhabhadran Ramanathan, one of the world's leading climate scientists. "We are talking about billions of people."
But perhaps the most alarming aspect of global dimming is that it may have led scientists to underestimate the true power of the greenhouse effect. They know how much extra energy is being trapped in the Earth's atmosphere by the extra carbon dioxide (CO2) we have placed there. What has been surprising is that this extra energy has so far resulted in a temperature rise of just 0.6°C.
This has led many scientists to conclude that the present-day climate is less sensitive to the effects of carbon dioxide than it was, say, during the ice age, when a similar rise in CO2 led to a temperature rise of 6°C. But it now appears the warming from greenhouse gases has been offset by a strong cooling effect from dimming - in effect two of our pollutants have been cancelling each other out. This means that the climate may in fact be more sensitive to the greenhouse effect than thought.
If so, then this is bad news, according to Dr Peter Cox, one of the world's leading climate modellers. As things stand, CO2 levels are projected to rise strongly over coming decades, whereas there are encouraging signs that particle pollution is at last being brought under control. "We're going to be in a situation, unless we act, where the cooling pollutant is dropping off while the warming pollutant is going up. That means we'll get reduced cooling and increased heating at the same time and that's a problem for us," says Cox.
Even the most pessimistic forecasts of global warming may now have to be drastically revised upwards. That means a temperature rise of 10°C by 2100 could be on the cards, giving the UK a climate like that of North Africa, and rendering many parts of the world uninhabitable. That is unless we act urgently to curb our emissions of greenhouse gases.
WHAT IF EARTH'S MAGNETIC POLES FLIP?
Earth's magnetic field, which is vital to protecting life on our planet from solar radiation, is mysteriously weakening. On average the planet's magnetic field has lost almost 10% of its strength over the last two centuries, but there is a large localised region of weakness stretching from Africa to South America.
Earth's magnetic north pole, which has been wandering faster than expected in recent years, has now crossed the prime meridian.
Magnetic north has been lurching away from its previous home in the Canadian Arctic toward Siberia at a rate of about 34 miles (55 kilometres) a year over the past two decades. The latest model of the Earth's magnetic field, released Dec. 10 by the National Centres for Environmental Information and the British Geological Survey, predicts that this movement will continue, though likely at a slower rate of 25 miles (40 km) each year.
This model is used to calibrate GPS and other navigation measurements.
Earth's magnetic field is produced by the churning of the planet's iron outer core, which produces a complex, but largely north-south magnetic field. For reasons not entirely understood but related to the planet's interior dynamics, the magnetic field is currently undergoing a period of weakening. That's why magnetic north is drifting.
Scientists release a new version of the World Magnetic Model every five years, so this 2020 update was expected. In February 2019, though, they had to release an update ahead of schedule due to the fast clip of magnetic north's movements. The 2020 model shows the "Blackout Zone" around magnetic north where compasses become unreliable and start to fail because of the proximity of true north.
The new maps also show magnetic north east of the prime meridian, a boundary the pole crossed in September 2019, according to Newsweek. The prime, or Greenwich, meridian is the meridian that was set as the official marker of zero degrees, zero minutes and zero seconds in 1884;iIt runs through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich in England.
What If Earth's Magnetic Poles Flip?
It's currently unclear whether Earth's magnetic poles are headed for a flip switching north and south, or whether the magnetic field will soon strengthen again. Both events have happened in Earth's history without any notable effect on biology. However, modern navigation systems rely on magnetic north and will have to be re-calibrated as the poles continue to wander. Already, for example, airports have had to rename some of their runways, which have names based on compass directions.
AT THE CENTRE OF OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY...
At the centre of our Milky Way galaxy sits a super-massive black hole called Sagittarius A, which has a mass of 4 million times that of our sun, the distance from Earth is 26,445 light years, or 300 million, trillion miles from Earth, the above photograph was taken by the Event Horizon Telescope.
The black hole is at the centre of our galaxy, black holes are a class of astronomical object that have undergone gravitational collapse, leaving behind spheroidal regions of space from which nothing can escape, not even light. Observational evidence indicates that nearly all large galaxies contain a super-massive black hole, located at the galaxy's centre.
The complex astronomical radio source Sagittarius A appears to be located almost exactly at the Galactic Centre (approx. 18 hrs, −29 deg), and contains an intense compact radio source, Sagittarius A*, which coincides with a super-massive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
To a distant observer, clocks near a black hole would appear to tick more slowly than those further away from the black hole. Due to this effect, known as gravitational time dilation, an object falling into a black hole appears to slow as it approaches the event horizon, taking an infinite time to reach it.
The gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape once it gets too close. However, there is one way to escape a black hole but only if you're a subatomic particle. Black holes are strange regions where gravity is strong enough to bend light, warp space and distort time.
A black hole is a place where the laws of physics as we know them break down. Einstein taught us that gravity warps space itself, causing it to curve. So given a dense enough object, space-time can become so warped that it twists in on itself, burrowing a hole through the fabric of reality.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of space-time which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole which can only be entered from the outside and from which matter and light cannot escape.
The Event Horizon Telescope creates the image of a black hole shadow thanks to the precise coordination of a worldwide telescope network. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes forged through international collaboration.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES SQUEEZED OUR PLANET ON JANUARY 14TH 2020
A mysterious cosmic event might have ever-so-slightly stretched and squeezed our planet last week. On Jan. 14, astronomers detected a split-second burst of gravitational waves, distortions in space-time, but researchers don't know where this burst came from. the Betelgeuse star would create a gravitational wave burst but this star still hasn't exploded, or has it and we just haven't detected it, as the light hasn't yet reached us but maybe the wave burst has? Betelgeuse is 642.5 light years away so if it exploded today it'd be 642 years before we'd know anyhing about it and see this event in the night sky. A gravitational wave is an invisible yet incredibly fast ripple in space. Gravitational waves travel at the speed of light 186,000 miles per second, however by rippling space it may in fact travel faster than light.
The gravitational wave signal, picked up by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Virgo interferometer, lasted only 14 milliseconds, and astronomers haven't yet been able to pinpoint the burst's cause or determine whether it was just a blip in the detectors.
Gravitational waves can be caused by the collision of massive objects, such as two black holes or two neutron stars. Astronomers detected such gravitational waves from a neutron star collision in 2017 and from one in April of 2019, according to new findings that were presented at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society on Jan. 6.
Nuclear Fusion, Energy of the Future
Potentially offering an inexhaustible supply of zero-carbon energy, nuclear fusion has shown great promise for decades but is yet to be viable at scale because maintaining a fusion reaction requires more power than it generates.
However, recent advances in the quest for fusion power have reignited hopes that it can be made feasible.
Scientists in China have built a fusion reactor that in November became the first in the world to reach 100 million degrees Celsius. That’s nearly seven times hotter than the sun’s core and the temperature at which hydrogen atoms can begin to fuse into helium.
The achievement by China’s Institute of Plasma Physics at its Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is a milestone on the fusion journey, and will provide valuable insights for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, a collaboration between the European Union, India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United States.
Fusion is the reaction that powers the Sun. It’s produced when two light atoms fuse into one under extreme pressure and temperature. The total mass of the new atom is less than that of the two that formed it; the "missing" mass is given off as energy, as described by Albert Einstein's equation E=mc2.
Fission, which is the energy source in current nuclear power stations, involves splitting an atom’s nucleus.
Fusion has the potential to deliver much more power than fission, but without the long-lasting radioactive waste.
There are several "recipes" for cooking up fusion, which rely on different atomic combinations.
The most promising combination for power on Earth today is the fusion of a deuterium atom with a tritium one. The process, which requires temperatures of approximately 39 million degrees Celsius, produces 17.6 million electron volts of energy.
Deuterium is a promising ingredient because it is an isotope of hydrogen. In turn, hydrogen is a key part of water. A gallon of seawater (3.8 litres) could produce as much energy as 300 gallons (1,136 litres) of petrol.
MIT Plans New Fusion Reactor That Could Actually Generate Power
MIT says it has the tools to make true fusion power happen, and it may be producing energy in a few years.
MIT has made several significant advances toward usable fusion power in recent years, like the technique to vent excess heat from fusion reactors. The latest innovation is a type of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) that can make electromagnets more powerful. The team behind the “Sparc” reactor project at MIT believes this will be the difference between wasting and generating power with fusion.
The Sparc reactor proposed by MIT isn’t dramatically different than other tokamak fusion devices from previous experiments. You start with deuterium and tritium, both isotopes of hydrogen. When heated to high temperatures, it forms a plasma that the reactor confines within a magnetic field encircling the toroidal chamber of the reactor. The high heat and pressure cause some of the atoms to undergo fusion and release energy.
WATER on Exoplanets
There is life virtually wherever there is water on Earth, so discovering less water on other planetary systems might suggest the chances of life as we know it in the universe maybe lower as well.
A lower inventory of water in exoplanets is not a bad thing for their potential for habitability.
Jets emanating from a black hole are travelling at 99% the speed of light
The jets emanating from a black hole in the galaxy Messier 87 (M87) are travelling at approximately 99% the speed of light, according to new observations.
NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory imaged knots of material speeding away from the accretion disk, where gas, dust and other material swirl around the black hole. Some of the material falls into the black hole, whilst some is redirected away into jets of material that follow magnetic field lines.
Gravitational time dilation and BLACK HOLES
Scientists have postulated the connection between black and white holes. There is a classic metric satisfying the Einstein equations outside a finite space-time region where matter collapses into a black hole and then emerges from a while hole. In other words, all of the material black holes have swallowed are spewed out, and black holes become white holes when they die.
Space-time is a fabric, it's the illusion of a barrier seperating one mirror universe into another. The connecting universes are an infinite sea of bubbles stretching into a limitless expanse.
Every outcome exists interwoven into this fabric of space-time, this fabric is continuous, smooth, and gets curved and deformed by the presence of matter and energy. The past, present and future, everything that can happen will happen woven into the fabric, it's something within from which something else originates. The dimensions outside our universal space time is a dimension which is not accessible, however it does exist, we can only access the dimensions within our internal universal system. Outside our known universe is where our real reality is programmed, our coded instructions for the automatic performance of what we call reality.
Gravitational time dilation
Imagine an A.I. robot rotating towards a black hole, when it reaches the event horizon it would appear to the observer as though the A.I. was frozen in time, the A.I. wouldn't progress past this frozen moment, the A.I. would know it had passed through the horizon, a surface in space time, but to the observer the A.I. would remain frozen forever. To the A.I. events did happened but to anything else outside this region, these events never happened.
It's not a visual reference
Black holes behave like an object, you can orbit them, they don't suck stuff in, it has no circular geodesics, it's the strange geometry that attracts objects in the same way as a falling apple on Earth. A black hole is not black, imagine you are in the twilight zone, no matter which way you turn you will always be facing inwards. The time dilation is so severe that light is red shifted to such an exetent into invisibility making the black hole look black to the observer. The black hole at the centre of our galaxy = 4 million solar mass, is the density of =~ water, so not infinitely dense, based on circumference not volume.
The infinitely dense singularity is a misconception, when a massive star collapses the mass of the star and the mass of the black hole will be the same, the horizon forms in the interior of the star and then expands; to an observer the matter never crosses the horizon, it's frozen, to the observer the mass is not inside the black hole.
Einstein allowed for an empty universe that had an eternal black hole which didn't form from anything, an event horizon that didn't have any stuff anywhere, even behind the horizon. This is a typical Prototypical black hole. The mass isn't a property of the singularity, it isn't a thing, place or event, it's a hole that's been punched out of the space time fabric, so the geodesics terminate that conclusion based on, where's the mass? Is it associated with the curvature of space time or with all of space time? The singularity at the core does not exist, and so it doesn't form an impenetrable barrier that ends up crushing whatever it encounters, meaning that information is never lost, it just continues.
Thank you Jupiter
The chances the universe exists is one in ten followed by ten zeros and then followed bA gravitational wave is an invisible (yet incredibly fast) ripple in space. Gravitational waves travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles per second)y a further 123 zeros. If you altered one part in the universe it wouldn't exist as we know it today.
Earth is also lucky to exist, going back in time 4.5 billion years ago when our solar system first took shape, Jupiter formed, when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become this gas giant. Jupiter took most of the mass left over after the formation of the Sun, ending up with more than twice the combined material of the other bodies in the solar system. In fact, Jupiter has the same ingredients as the Sun, but it did not grow massive enough to ignite.
At this early time Jupiter was set on a collision course towards the Sun, however miraculously it met with Saturn and the combined gravity kicked both planets into the orbits we see today, without this happening Earth wouldn't be in the habitable zone for life to take place.
In order for 'you' to exist, many things also needed to unfold. The exact sperm cell and egg cell needed to meet to create you with the DNA sequence that encoded you, and brought you into existence is a one in 250 million chance for a sperm cell alone. That needed to happen each time in an unbroken string for millions of generations of your ancestors.
Other events needed to occur as well, life needed to take hold on Earth, Earth needed to form as a habitable planet with the right ingredients for life, the laws of physics needed to be such that they permitted life, and the universe itself must have unfolded in such a way as to make all of this possible. Life may not be what it is today if the Moon hadn't existed, or if Earth didn't have plate tectonics or have a magnetic field, so many factors had to intricately be in place.
My grandfather told me a story when I was young, he said a friend of his used to fly a small aircraft and this friend asked him one afternoon if he'd like to join him on a trip in this aeroplane, unfortunately matters were such that he couldn't make it, however unbeknown to my grandfather at the time he was so lucky he couldn't make the trip as the aircraft crashed killing his friend, he said to me if he'd gone that day I wouldn't exist.
A galaxy NGC 6240 with three super-massive black holes at its heart
Very occasionally, astronomers spot not one but two of these hungry giants moving together, typically when they observe two galaxies merging. But now, researchers have spotted something utterly unprecedented: A galaxy with three super-massive black holes at its heart.
Dr. Peter Weilbacher, one of the researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, underlined the significance of this finding: “Up until now, such a concentration of three super-massive black holes had never been discovered in the universe,” he said.
Galaxy NGC 6240 is approximately 400 million light-years away and is fairly well studied, having been imaged by instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope on several occasions. This time, though, the researchers used the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT). This instrument allows the researchers to collect a three-dimensional data-set with each pixel representing a full spectrum of light.
With this tool, the astronomers were able to detect the three black holes, even though they can’t be seen directly. “Through our observations with extremely high spatial resolution we were able to show that NGC 6240 hosts not two but three super-massive black holes in its centre,” said Professor Wolfram Kollatschny, an astronomer at the University of Göttingen. “Each of the three heavyweights has a mass of more than 90 million suns.”
Using DNA in the fight against crime
Genetic genealogy, a forensic technique for tracking down suspects through their family trees.
With DNA found at the crime scene, police use a new process called Genealogy GEDmatch.
Two people in the database may share some DNA with the supposed killer. Each person may have shared great-grandparents with the suspect.
Reconstructing these people’s family trees help police to further investigate and make an arrest.
Ways to Create FREE ENERGY
The total amount of energy in the universe cannot increase or decrease, it can only be changed from one form to another, energy is conserved. When power is pulsed into a coil then an electromagnetic field is produced around the coil, known as electromagnetic force, the electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces.
The electric force acts between all charged particles, whether or not they're moving. The magnetic force acts between moving charged particles. This means that every charged particle gives off an electric field, whether or not it's moving.
Electrical energy is created by moving electric charges called electrons.
The faster the charges move, the more electrical energy they carry. The charges that create energy are moving, electrical energy is a form of kinetic energy.
Virgin Galactic unveils sleek interior of SpaceShipTwo spaceliner photos.
Richard Branson's Virgin Group, today (July 28) revealed the cabin interior of the six-passenger SpaceShipTwo, which is designed to carry people and payloads to suborbital space and back.
"When we created Virgin Galactic, we started with what we believed would be an optimal customer experience and then built the spaceship around it," Branson said in a statement today.
"We will continue with that ethos as we expand our fleet, build our operations and underpin Virgin Galactic's position as the spaceline for Earth," he said. "This cabin has been designed specifically to allow thousands of people like you and me to achieve the dream of spaceflight safely, and that is incredibly exciting."
The interior, which Virgin Galactic devised in collaboration with London-based design agency Seymourpowell, is sleek and stylish. The cabin's colour palette "has been carefully curated so that it complements the architecture of the seat, the cabin itself and spacesuits," company representatives wrote in the same statement. "The golden metallic's resemble luminous desert sands, blues conjure celestial spaces and teals inspired by the ocean ground travellers back to Earth."
The six seats can recline, a feature that SpaceShipTwo's two pilots will manage to minimise g-forces on passengers during the boost and re-entry phases of each suborbital flight. Every seat boasts a screen that will display flight data, and passengers will have personal communications systems that give them access to the pilots, Virgin Galactic representatives said.
SpaceShipTwo is hauled aloft by a big plane called WhiteKnightTwo, which drops the spacecraft at an altitude of about 50,000 feet (15,000 meters). SpaceShipTwo's onboard rocket motor then kicks on, blasting the vehicle up to suborbital space.
Free energy will be created by tapping into the continuous movement of vehicles on the road, unfortunately this is not available yet.
Movement produces kinetic energy, which can be converted into power. In the past, devices that turned kinetic energy into electricity, such as a hand-flashlight, which involved a person turning a winding mechanism to create the power. The moving magnets cause electrons in the wires to move from one place to another, creating an electrical current and producing electricity.
The windup powered flashlight, with the light powered by a battery which is recharged by a generator turned by a hand crank on the flashlight. When the light is turned on, the spring unwinds, turning a generator to provide power to run the light.
The device works by electromagnetic induction, which is a lot more simple than it sounds. Typically, when you turn the crank, it spins the magnet within the wire coil. As the surfaces pass each other repeatedly, electrons are pulled from the magnetic field, creating electricity.
Carbon-foam probes and interstellar flight
A spacecraft made of carbon-foam bubbles could zoom from Earth to Alpha Centauri in 185 years, driven solely by the power of the sun, a new study finds.
A swarm of these probes might help discover and study our solar system's mysterious Planet Nine, if this hypothesised world exists, scientists added.
Conventional rockets driven by chemical reactions are currently the leading form of space propulsion. However, they are not anywhere close to efficient enough to reach another star within a human lifetime.
For example, Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to Earth, lies about 4.37 light-years away more than 25.6 trillion miles (41.2 trillion kilometers), or about 276,000 times the distance from Earth to the sun. It would take NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft, which launched in 1977 and reached interstellar space in 2012, about 75,000 years to reach Alpha Centauri if the probe were headed in the right direction (which it is not).
The problem with all conventional spacecraft thrust is that the propellant they use has mass. Long trips require a lot of propellant, which makes spacecraft heavy, which in turn requires more propellant, making them heavier and so on. This problem becomes exponentially worse the larger a spacecraft gets.
Previous research has therefore suggested that "light sailing" might be one of the only technically feasible methods to get a probe to another star within a human lifetime. Although light does not exert much pressure, scientists have determined that what little it does apply could have a major effect. Indeed, numerous experiments have shown that "solar sails" can rely on sunlight for propulsion, given a large enough mirror and a spacecraft that is light enough.
The $100 million Breakthrough Star-shot initiative, which was announced in 2016, aims to launch swarms of microchip-size spacecraft to Alpha Centauri, each of them sporting extraordinarily thin, incredibly reflective sails. The plan has these "star-chips" flying at up to 20% the speed of light, reaching Alpha Centauri in about 20 years.
A drawback of the Star-shot project is that it requires the most powerful laser array ever built to propel the star-chips outward. Not only does the technology to build this array currently not exist, the project's estimated total costs may reach $5 billion to $10 billion.
In the new study, astrophysicists suggested that a cheaper option could involve bubbles made of carbon foam. Probes made of this stuff could make interstellar journeys faster than any rocket while powered solely by sunlight, without the need for a giant laser array, the researchers found.
In order to develop a way for sunlight to propel a light sail to useful interstellar speeds, researchers analysed previous scientific research looking for strong, lightweight materials. They settled on aero-graphite, a carbon-based foam 15,000 times lighter than aluminium.
The scientists calculated that a hollow aero-graphite sphere about 3.3 feet (1 meter) in diameter with a shell 1 micron thick (about 1% the width of an average human hair) would weigh just five millionths of a pound (2.3 milligrams).
Travelling light speed at mach 882,000.
The year 2020 Superfast Falcon Military arircraft hit mach 20, the hypersonic craft maintained this speed for three minutes.
If you could travel at the speed of light, you could go around the Earth 7.5 times in one second.
Mach 15 is about 5104.35 meters per second. The only plane that was slated to move that fast was the (unmanned) NASA X-43, which recorded speeds over Mach 10. Astronauts reach well over Mach 15 during re-entry: they can reach speeds as high as Mach 25.
NASA's X-43A scramjet with a new world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. The X-43A set the new mark and broke its own world record on its third and final flight on Nov. 16, 2004.
The Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird with a clocked speed of some 100 miles per hour faster than its closest competition, along with a personal account of the jet travelling upwards of Mach 3.5, the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird is the fastest jet on the planet. The original Blackbird was designated the A-12 and made its first flight on April 30, 1962. The single-seat A-12 soon evolved into the larger SR-71, which added a second seat for a Reconnaissance Systems Officer and carried more fuel than the A-12. The SR-71's first flight was on December 22, 1964.
"Mach Number" is named after the Austrian physicist Ernst Mach. Mach 1 is the speed of sound, which is approximately 760 miles per hour at sea level. An air-plane flying less than Mach 1 is travelling at subsonic speeds, faster than Mach 1 would be supersonic speeds and Mach 2 would be twice the speed of sound.
The average bullet travels about 1,700 miles per hour. Mach 1 is about 767 miles per hour. A railgun projectile will travel at Mach 6, that's nearly three times faster than the typical bullet.
The speed of light is almost 300,000,000 metres per second. So the speed of light is mach 882,000 (that's at sea level in air - mach is not a fixed speed as it depends on the pressure, temperature atmospheric make up.
Scientists have discovered a new star
and planet that they believe are
a ‘mirror image’ of the
Earth and our sun.
According to researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, the star, Kepler-160, and planet, KOI-456.04, are more similar to the Sun-Earth system than any previously known exoplanet-star pair, despite being over 3,000 light-years away.
The planet is around twice the size of Earth, and orbits its star at a distance that could allow life to thrive, according to the team.
Meanwhile, the star is a red dwarf, with a surface temperature of around 5,200°C - around 300° less than our own sun.
The researchers believe that life on the planet could potentially have had twice as much time than life on Earth to form and evolve.
Several planets have previously been found to orbit the star, including two potentially habitable planets called Kepler-160b and Kepler-160c.
However, a new analysis of the solar system has revealed the previously unknown planet, KOI-456.04.
Dr René Heller, who led the study, said: “Our improvement is particularly important in the search for small, Earth-sized planets.
“Our analysis suggests that Kepler-160 is orbited not by two but by a total of four planets.”
KOI-456.04 sits in a region of the star’s habitable zone – the distance range around a star admitting liquid surface water on an Earth-like planet.
This is comparable to the Earth’s position around the Sun, according to the researchers.