Landing on the Far Side of the Moon
A few days later, this time in our own celestial neighborhood, another historic event took place. For the first time in the history of the space explorations, an unmanned robotic lander, successfully landed on the far side of the Moon.
Chang’e-4 (named after the goddess of the Moon) is the latest mission in the China lunar exploration program. After successfully orbiting and landing on the familiar and near side of the Moon, China took a step forward and successfully landed its lander on a crater called Von Kármán, inside the South Pole–Aitken basin which is one of the largest impact craters in the solar system.
This mission is an important one. For the first time, the Chinese space program is accomplishing a task that never has been done before by any other nations. No one ever landed on the far side of the moon. This mission also has scientific importance.
The lander accompanied by a small moon rover called, Yutu-2, equipped by several scientific instruments and a small bio-box to test the growth of seeds and insects in low gravity.
The Far Side or the Dark Side
The moon's orbital periods and its rotation are tidally locked, in another word, the moon will rotate around its axis in the same time that it takes to complete one rotation around the Earth. As a result, from the Earth, we only can see one side of the Moon and the other side is hidden from us (except a small area that could be visible because of phenomena called libration).
That is why we call it the far side of the moon. Sometimes the far side of the moon is also called the dark side of the moon. It is a popular name (especially after the famous Pink Floyd album), but it is not accurate.
The far side of the moon is not always dark. It is experiencing days and nights like the near side of the moon but both days and nights of the far side are happening behind the moon and far from our eyesight.