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NASA’s Curiosity rover continues to make discoveries that challenge our understanding of the Martian environment. The latest strange puzzle taxing scientists is the variation of oxygen levels on the planet’s surface, as detected Curiosity’s portable chemistry lab, Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM). 
In its journey around the Gale Crater, Curiosity discovered the Martian atmosphere has a composition at the surface of 95% by volume of carbon dioxide (CO2), 2.6% molecular nitrogen (N2), 1.9% argon (Ar), 0.16% molecular oxygen (O2), and 0.06% carbon monoxide (CO). The nitrogen and argon levels follow a predictable seasonal pattern, changing relative to the amount of carbon dioxide. The levels of oxygen, however, didn’t conform to expected patterns, rising by as much as 30% over spring and summer. 
The scientists tried various hypotheses to explain the oxygen variation. They checked whether the SAM instrument was functioning correctly and looked at whether carbon dioxide molecules could be breaking apart in the atmosphere to create oxygen, but neither approach yielded results. 
“We’re struggling to explain this,” Melissa Trainer, a planetary scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre and leader of the research, said in the statement. “The fact that the oxygen behaviour isn’t perfectly repeatable every season makes us think that it’s not an issue that has to do with atmospheric dynamics. It has to be some chemical source and sink that we can’t yet account for.” 
One possibility is that the oxygen levels are related to another Martian puzzle: The fluctuating levels of methane on the planet. As well as expected seasonal variations in methane levels, Curiosity has detected spikes of methane of up to 60% at some times. Scientists still can’t explain this finding either, but they may have found a link between methane and oxygen levels: It seems like the two gases fluctuate together at certain times. 
“We’re beginning to see this tantalising correlation between methane and oxygen for a good part of the Mars year,” Atreya said. “I think there’s something to it. I just don’t have the answers yet. 
A super-massive black hole 
Image taken by the Event Horizon Telescope 
At the centre of our Milky Way galaxy sits a super-massive black hole called Sagittarius A, which has a mass of 4 million times that of our sun, the distance from Earth is 26,445 light years, or 300 million, trillion miles from Earth, the above photograph was taken by the Event Horizon Telescope.  
The black hole is at the centre of our galaxy, black holes are a class of astronomical object that have undergone gravitational collapse, leaving behind spheroidal regions of space from which nothing can escape, not even light. Observational evidence indicates that nearly all large galaxies contain a super-massive black hole, located at the galaxy's centre. 
The complex astronomical radio source Sagittarius A appears to be located almost exactly at the Galactic Centre (approx. 18 hrs, −29 deg), and contains an intense compact radio source, Sagittarius A*, which coincides with a super-massive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. 
To a distant observer, clocks near a black hole would appear to tick more slowly than those further away from the black hole. Due to this effect, known as gravitational time dilation, an object falling into a black hole appears to slow as it approaches the event horizon, taking an infinite time to reach it. 
The gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape once it gets too close. However, there is one way to escape a black hole but only if you're a subatomic particle. Black holes are strange regions where gravity is strong enough to bend light, warp space and distort time. 
A black hole is a place where the laws of physics as we know them break down. Einstein taught us that gravity warps space itself, causing it to curve. So given a dense enough object, space-time can become so warped that it twists in on itself, burrowing a hole through the very fabric of reality. 
White Holes 
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of space-time which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole which can only be entered from the outside and from which matter and light cannot escape. 
The Event Horizon Telescope creates the image of a black hole shadow thanks to the precise coordination of a worldwide telescope network. 
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes forged through international collaboration. 
Nuclear Fusion,  
Energy of the Future 
Potentially offering an inexhaustible supply of zero-carbon energy, nuclear fusion has shown great promise for decades but is yet to be viable at scale because maintaining a fusion reaction requires more power than it generates. 
However, recent advances in the quest for fusion power have reignited hopes that it can be made feasible. 
Scientists in China have built a fusion reactor that in November became the first in the world to reach 100 million degrees Celsius. That’s nearly seven times hotter than the sun’s core and the temperature at which hydrogen atoms can begin to fuse into helium. 
The achievement by China’s Institute of Plasma Physics at its Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is a milestone on the fusion journey, and will provide valuable insights for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, a collaboration between the European Union, India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United States. 
Fusion is the reaction that powers the Sun. It’s produced when two light atoms fuse into one under extreme pressure and temperature. The total mass of the new atom is less than that of the two that formed it; the "missing" mass is given off as energy, as described by Albert Einstein's equation E=mc2. 
Fission, which is the energy source in current nuclear power stations, involves splitting an atom’s nucleus. 
Fusion has the potential to deliver much more power than fission, but without the long-lasting radioactive waste. 
There are several "recipes" for cooking up fusion, which rely on different atomic combinations. 
The most promising combination for power on Earth today is the fusion of a deuterium atom with a tritium one. The process, which requires temperatures of approximately 39 million degrees Celsius, produces 17.6 million electron volts of energy. 
Deuterium is a promising ingredient because it is an isotope of hydrogen. In turn, hydrogen is a key part of water. A gallon of seawater (3.8 litres) could produce as much energy as 300 gallons (1,136 litres) of petrol. 
MIT Plans New Fusion Reactor That Could Actually Generate Power 
MIT says it has the tools to make true fusion power happen, and it may be producing energy in a few years. 
MIT has made several significant advances toward usable fusion power in recent years, like the technique to vent excess heat from fusion reactors. The latest innovation is a type of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) that can make electromagnets more powerful. The team behind the “Sparc” reactor project at MIT believes this will be the difference between wasting and generating power with fusion. 
The Sparc reactor proposed by MIT isn’t dramatically different than other tokamak fusion devices from previous experiments. You start with deuterium and tritium, both isotopes of hydrogen. When heated to high temperatures, it forms a plasma that the reactor confines within a magnetic field encircling the toroidal chamber of the reactor. The high heat and pressure cause some of the atoms to undergo fusion and release energy. 
5G is it safe? 
Super-fast phones. Self-driving cars. Smarter homes. Streaming movies, music, and games with zero lag. These are just a some of the technologies we can expect to see in our lives, 5G will allow our devices and services, The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. to interconnect seamlessly. Things that seem complex to operate, like autonomous cars or drones, will become achievable. 
To achieve this will mean harnessing millimetre wave (mmWave) spectrum for faster data speeds is one of the biggest breakthroughs of 5G, the next generation cellular networking technology following 4G LTE. But there are concerns this very high-frequency spectrum could pose adverse health effects for the public. 
Radio-frequency (RF) radiation. At a basic level, radiation isn’t as intimidating a term as it might sound. Radiation is the emission of energy from any source, which means even the heat that comes off our bodies counts as radiation. 
RF radiation is just another name for radio waves. As the FDA puts it, RF radiation is one form of electromagnetic energy which consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together (radiating) through space. 
The radiation that cellphones give off is at the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, making them much safer than high-energy radiation like x-rays and gamma rays. While the latter give off ionising radiation, meaning they have enough energy to ionise an atom or molecule and thus damage cell DNA resulting in cancer, RF radiation does not. RF radiation only has enough energy to move or vibrate atoms in a molecule, not enough to ionise it. While that means RF radiation does not cause cancer by damaging DNA cells, there still are ongoing studies regarding the effects of non-ionising radiation. 
Using DNA in the fight against crime 
Genetic genealogy, a forensic technique for tracking down suspects through their family trees. 
With DNA found at the crime scene, police use a new process called Genealogy GEDmatch.  
Two people in the database may share some DNA with the supposed killer. Each person may have shared great-grandparents with the suspect. 
Reconstructing these people’s family trees help police to further investigate and make an arrest. 
Ways to Create FREE ENERGY 
The total amount of energy in the universe cannot increase or decrease, it can only be changed from one form to another, energy is conserved. When power is pulsed into a coil then an electromagnetic field is produced around the coil, known as electromagnetic force, the electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces.  
The electric force acts between all charged particles, whether or not they're moving. The magnetic force acts between moving charged particles. This means that every charged particle gives off an electric field, whether or not it's moving.  
Electrical energy is created by moving electric charges called electrons. The faster the charges move, the more electrical energy they carry. The charges that create energy are moving, electrical energy is a form of kinetic energy. 
Free energy will be created by tapping into the continuous movement of vehicles on the road, unfortunately this is not available yet.  
Movement produces kinetic energy, which can be converted into power. In the past, devices that turned kinetic energy into electricity, such as a hand-flashlight, which involved a person turning a winding mechanism to create the power. The moving magnets cause electrons in the wires to move from one place to another, creating an electrical current and producing electricity. 
The windup powered flashlight, with the light powered by a battery which is recharged by a generator turned by a hand crank on the flashlight. When the light is turned on, the spring unwinds, turning a generator to provide power to run the light. 
The device works by electromagnetic induction, which is a lot more simple than it sounds. Typically, when you turn the crank, it spins the magnet within the wire coil. As the surfaces pass each other repeatedly, electrons are pulled from the magnetic field, creating electricity. 
Thank you Jupiter 
The chances the universe exists is one in ten followed by ten zeros and then followed by a further 123 zeros. If you altered one part in the universe it wouldn't exist as we know it today. 
Earth is also lucky to exist, going back in time 4.5 billion years ago when our solar system first took shape, Jupiter formed, when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become this gas giant. Jupiter took most of the mass left over after the formation of the Sun, ending up with more than twice the combined material of the other bodies in the solar system. In fact, Jupiter has the same ingredients as the Sun, but it did not grow massive enough to ignite. 
At this early time Jupiter was set on a collision course towards the Sun, however miraculously it met with Saturn and the combined gravity kicked both planets into the orbits we see today, without this happening Earth wouldn't be in the habitable zone for life to take place. 
In order for 'you' to exist, many things also needed to unfold. The exact sperm cell and egg cell needed to meet to create you with the DNA sequence that encoded you, and brought you into existence is a one in 250 million chance for a sperm cell alone. That needed to happen each time in an unbroken string for millions of generations of your ancestors.  
Other events needed to occur as well, life needed to take hold on Earth, Earth needed to form as a habitable planet with the right ingredients for life, the laws of physics needed to be such that they permitted life, and the universe itself must have unfolded in such a way as to make all of this possible. Life may not be what it is today if the Moon hadn't existed, or if Earth didn't have plate tectonics or have a magnetic field, so many factors had to intricately be in place. 
My grandfather told me a story when I was young, he said a friend of his used to fly a small aircraft and this friend asked him one afternoon if he'd like to join him on a trip in this aeroplane, unfortunately matters were such that he couldn't make it, however unbeknown to my grandfather at the time he was so lucky he couldn't make the trip as the aircraft crashed killing his friend, he said to me if he'd gone that day I wouldn't exist. 
A galaxy NGC 6240 with three super-massive black holes at its heart 
Very occasionally, astronomers spot not one but two of these hungry giants moving together, typically when they observe two galaxies merging. But now, researchers have spotted something utterly unprecedented: A galaxy with three super-massive black holes at its heart. 
Dr. Peter Weilbacher, one of the researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, underlined the significance of this finding: “Up until now, such a concentration of three super-massive black holes had never been discovered in the universe,” he said. 
Galaxy NGC 6240 is approximately 400 million light-years away and is fairly well studied, having been imaged by instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope on several occasions. This time, though, the researchers used the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT). This instrument allows the researchers to collect a three-dimensional data-set with each pixel representing a full spectrum of light. 
With this tool, the astronomers were able to detect the three black holes, even though they can’t be seen directly. “Through our observations with extremely high spatial resolution we were able to show that NGC 6240 hosts not two but three super-massive black holes in its centre,” said Professor Wolfram Kollatschny, an astronomer at the University of Göttingen. “Each of the three heavyweights has a mass of more than 90 million suns.” 
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